Poultry farming is currently considered one of the leading livestock industries in Nigeria. Demand is consistently high, every day it only increases, and it is definitely not going to fall in the coming years. There is quite a lot of competition here, but you should not be upset because of this, because there are enough buyers for everyone.
There are also large farms where birds are fed special food that gives an unprecedented increase in weight, in the pursuit of profit, the farms keep birds in not the most favorable conditions for their life. And therefore, knowing this, ordinary people are increasingly inclined to buy organic food: they want to be sure that there is no chemistry in their meat, and the bird was quite happy and healthy.
So, poultry farming in Nigeria is divided into 2 types of species according to its goals: meat and egg .
As for meat production, meat can be obtained from all types of poultry: broilers, quails, ducks, turkeys, indo-ducks, geese and so on. Top breeding birds are broilers, turkeys and geese.
Broilers are the undisputed leaders in sales. They are grown exclusively for meat. They are gaining their commercial weight in the shortest possible time, which cannot but please businessmen-amateurs, and thanks to the demand for them they bring a good income. At the same time, this allows you to update the number of young animals every month so that the business is stable all year round.
Broilers are bred in 3 ways:
- Buy hatching eggs, but in this case there is a risk that some chicks will not hatch. The cost of hatching eggs is approximately 16,000 – 19,000
- Buy a chicks that are only a day old, but you should carefully check such chicks for health. Chicks should be active, respond well to sound, stand firmly on their legs, eyes should be shiny and free of plaque, the chick’s belly should be elastic, not swollen, the umbilical cord should not bleed, and the skin in front should not sag. The price for such chickens is about N340-N350 naira per one.
- The third way is self-breeding. If you plan to breed them, then you should buy chicks of 2 sexes, and their meat is no different from each other.
Housing and feeding the broilers
As for a place to live, you can build a chicken farm within your area that has an internal size of 42 by 20 meters, the walls can be made of cinder concrete with the addition of sawdust, this will save a lot, because such walls combine price and strength with maximum thermal insulation.
Ceilings can be covered with slabs and insulated with a mixture of sawdust and expanded clay. The roof itself must be beveled to avoid failures during heavy rainfall in winter. The roofing material is tin. It is also necessary to build a place for walking nearby.
In terms of feeding, broilers are inherently omnivorous, they can also feed on scraps from the table. In the summer they eat grass and small grains that are in the ground. They also eat feed. The cost of 1 bag of 25 kg is approximately N7,500 naira.
In order to deliver your products to markets and other outlets, you need a truck. At the initial stage, your own personal transport will be enough, the luggage compartment is quite enough to transport a small batch of broilers.
Poultry farming as a home business is good because it does not require a large number of staff. It is enough just to occasionally contact the veterinarian to examine the animals. Yes, and broilers are not the most difficult creatures to breed, they do not require around-the-clock presence nearby, so 1 person is quite enough.
Expenses and income
- Registration of a peasant farm, paperwork – 5,000 for CAC. This might not be necessary if you are going to continue on a small range. But to be recognized as a business, you need to register it as a business.
- Building materials for a poultry house – up to 500,000 thousand naira or more, it all depends on the size and conditions.
- Conducting communications to the poultry house (water, light). Fluorescent lamps, drinkers, hose.
- Arrangement of a poultry house with drinkers, feeders, thermometers, ventilation, compartments for chickens up to one month of age and older.
- Plucking machine – N190,000 thousand naira.
- Buying chicks – N20,000
- Purchase of feed, additives, vitamins for broilers of different ages – N60,000
- Freezer – N120,000 or more. if there are problems with the sale of products as soon as possible after slaughter.
- Unforeseen expenses – N150,000.
During the year, the farm can sell 1,200 broilers per year, if the renewal of the young stock takes place monthly. The price for a carcass of a farm broiler is about N7,000 per one, which means that you can get about 8,400,000 million naira in a year. Now, when you minus that from the expenses you incur, you can see for yourself that it’s not bad business. In this case, your business will fully pay off already in the 1st year. From the 2nd year will only bring profit.
In conclusion of the conversation about broilers, it is worth noting that it is completely unprofitable to keep broilers for more than 3-4 months. The greater the weight of the chicken, the more difficult it is to sell it and recoup money for feed. Leaving adults is worth it only if they give eggs for further renewal of the young.
Turkey meat is also very popular on the Nigeria market, because it is one of the most dietary types of meat. And their weight reaches 17 kg! Why not a profitable business?
Turkey farming can be a highly profitable business that pays off in 12 months or less. At the same time, the risk is minimal, and competition in the market is low, in contrast to the production of chicken meat and eggs.
Such an investment is also attractive because of the low threshold for entering this business. To grow a trial livestock, 500 thousand naira, aside from in-place structure will be enough, and the first profit will begin in 5-6 months.
It is not practical to build cages for them here, considering how much weight and size they have. The only thing they need is extensive walking, so their meat will be less fat. As a dwelling, they need only a canopy and bedding. They tolerate cold well.
In the birdhouse, be sure to install perches (thick bars) at a height of about 80 cm, so that each bird has 40 cm of free space. For every 5 layers, you will need to provide 1 nest. For convenience, you can arrange them in 2 tiers, installing them in the darkest places of the house. The optimal size of the nest is 50 by 70 cm, a comfortable height is 60 cm, it is additionally desirable to build a threshold at the entrance of the nest. Males should preferably be kept separate from females.
The most difficult period in their breeding is the age of up to a month, you will have to tinker with them. Firstly, they need to be kept in a box where the bottom is covered with small chips or straw (on the newspaper, the paws of turkey poults disperse and get injured). Secondly, it is necessary to maintain 37 degrees of heat in the room, round-the-clock lighting is also necessary. Thirdly, they will have to drink 2-3 times a day, and only with warm water. The last point will be that the gastrointestinal tract of the chicks has a need for disinfection, for this you will need a weak solution of potassium permanganate. For young animals, obrat mashers are suitable as feed, but adults should be given full-fledged mixed feed.
Expenses and income
- Fencing of the walking area
- Weekly chicks – an average of 350- 400 naira per 1 piece
- Preventive and medicinal preparations
- Compound feed – the cost of starting feed is from 9,150 naira per 25kg, the cost of feed for turkeys older than 8 weeks differs. The feeding rate is 800 grams per day for 1 individual. Fattening turkeys for slaughter begins at 3-4 months of age. To do this, they are limited in movement and increase the amount of food. The average period of enhanced fattening of turkeys is 10-30 days. The female for 16 weeks (for slaughter) eats about 16 kg of feed, the male – 32 kg.
- Heating, lighting, water.
The live average weight of the 1st turkey is 8-10 kg, and the turkey is 16-17 kg. They sell turkey meat for 2,550 per kg.
Not a lot of Nigerian poultry farmers like to raise geese due to their large weight and very tasty meat. In addition, they are grown not only to sell meat, fluff is also very popular.
Farmers love to breed geese for their unpretentiousness. They adapt to almost any climate. Their diet is extremely simple: in the summer they nibble grass most of the time, and the rest of the time they eat compound feed. One of the main advantages in breeding geese is their strong immunity, so you won’t have to spend much on their treatment.
Geese are extremely freedom-loving birds; they do not tolerate sitting in a goose coop all day long. Therefore, it is worth making a small pasture for them. If you are going to grow up to 50 heads, then you will need about 0.5 ha. Fortunately, they are smart enough, in the villages they can often be seen free-ranging, as they perfectly remember the way home. Of course, this applies only to a very small farm, where geese are not the main bird.
Geese are waterfowl, so you should make sure that there is at least a small pond on your site. You must have housing for geese; a barn is suitable for this. Only, unfortunately, too much will not fit in the barn, only up to 15 individuals.
Expenses and income
Young units of these animals, which comprises of a male and female ones can be purchased 40,000 thousand naira. You can rear there ones and in no time, have more than enough when they lay eggs.
If you have the entire package of these animals, then you can not limit yourself in the sale of raw materials. Goose feathers are great for pillows and blankets, litter is required by gardeners, meat and liver are bought by both ordinary people and food industry enterprises.
On average, in Nigeria, prices for goose range from 60,000 to 75,000 thousand naira.
Egg poultry farming
In order to obtain eggs, of course, mainly chickens are raised. True, many breed ducks and quails for this purpose. Eggs are one of the main sources of animal protein for the population.
Keeping and breeding chickens for eggs is a versatile business that easily adapts to the conditions of the suburbs or rural areas: building a poultry house does not require a large area or complex expensive equipment. Of course, in the village, profitability is increased by the availability of free fodder and the possibility of arranging spacious open-air cages for walking birds, however, even with cellular content exclusively on compound feed, this type of activity can bring a good income to the farmer.
In order for the chickens to rush, you should carefully consider the choice of premises. For them, it is necessary to build a room where the temperature will be approximately 15-17 degrees Celsius with a humidity of 60-70%. Ventilation should be taken care of so that the composition of the air due to their droppings is not toxic to the hens. In addition, the illumination should not be high and not very low. The most optimal is 6 W per sq.m.
Laying hens are best taken as grown chicks, it is more expensive, but they will also bring profit much faster. Buying grown up young animals at the age of 18–20 weeks will cost you N4,000 thousand naira per head.
They are fed with mixed fodder, it is also worth using corn, bran, oats, rye, wheat, oilcake, barley, fish or meat and bone meal, greens, succulent food, grated fruits, root crops and vegetables in the diet, in winter – mash. The cost of compound feed for laying hens is about 5500 thousand naira per 25kg. 1 egg on the Nigerian market costs about N70 naira, and depending on the breed, 1 laying hen can produce from 130 to 330 eggs per year.
Of course, you can’t make much meat and eggs at home, but firstly, many people are not limited to just one type of bird. Secondly, the demand for organics, as mentioned above, is growing exponentially.
You can sell your products at farmers’ fairs, as well as create your own small online store to sell to individuals. Other options include the likes of selling to eateries, restaurants, companies in need of this, and feathers among others. In this case, social networks can come to the rescue.